The type of exposure and HIV status of the source patient will determine whether PEP should be provided to the exposed person.
PEP is recommended if the exposure meets all the following criteria
- Exposure to the HIV virus occurred within 72 hours
- The exposed individual is HIV negative.
- the source of the exposure is either HIV positive, or their status is unknown.
- The source of the exposure is blood, body tissue, visibly blood-stained fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or synovial, peritoneal, pericardial, or amniotic fluid and
- the puncture is deep, from a hollow-bore needle, or from other sharps visibly contaminated with any of the above-mentioned fluids.
If the HIV status of the source is positive, a two-drug regimen is recommended for any percutaneous injury or severe blood splash; the source patient treatment history and resistance pattern, if available, should be considered to decide the PEP regimen. PEP for HIV should be taken for 28 days.
No PEP for HIV is recommended if any of the following criteria apply
- More than 72 hours have passed
- The exposed individual is HIV positive.
- The source of the body fluid is an HIV-negative individual who is not high risk for infection.
- The skin of the exposed individual is intact (not broken or punctured).